DENPASAR, BALIPOST.com — The Singapore government has confirmed about the presence of monkeypox virus in the country. The virus was carried by a Nigerian visiting Singapore on April 28 and tested positive for monkeypox on May 8.
Director of Bali Mandara Hospital (RSBM), Bagus Darmayasa, explained the monkeypox is a rare disease caused by a virus. This disease is transmitted to humans through animals, such as rats or other rodents, especially in Central and Western Africa.
Someone can be exposed to the monkeypox virus through contact with blood, body fluids or mucosa (mucous membranes—Ed) of infected animals. Quoted from the World Health Organization (WHO), the symptoms of new monkeypox appear 14 to 21 days from the time the virus first infects. Before the symptoms appear, monkeypox usually begins with an incubation period of six to 16 days.
Based on a circular from the Ministry of Health of the RI regarding the alertness of importation of monkeypox disease, it is mentioned that Central and West Africa are endemic areas of the monkeypox. Monkeypox is transmitted by animals, especially rodents that contain monkeypox viruses.
Transmission occurs through bites, scratches as well as direct contact with blood, body fluids or lesions on the skin or mucosa of animals and consumption of improperly cooked meat. Human-to-human transmission can be possible but very limited, through respiratory secretions or lesions on the skin.
Monkeypox symptoms are similar to smallpox (chickenpox) but are lighter. Incubation period lasts for 5 to 21 days and symptoms that arise include fever, severe headache, lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), back pain, muscle aches and weakness.
This rash develops from red spots such as smallpox (maculopapula) blisters filled with clear fluid (vesicles), pus-filled blisters (pustules) and then hardens. It usually takes up to three weeks for the rash to disappear.
Monkeypox is usually a disease that can recover itself with symptoms that last for 14-21 days. Severe cases are more common in children and are associated with levels of exposure to the virus, patient health status and severity of complications. Death cases vary but less than 10 percent of the cases reported, where most of them are in children. In general, younger age groups appear to be more susceptible to monkeypox disease.
Based on data from SINKARKES from January to May 10, most ship arrivals were from Singapore (18,176 ships) and flights from Singapore were relatively large so that the possibility of the spread of monkeypox disease in Indonesia can occur, although according to the Singapore Ministry of Health the risk of spread is low in Singapore.
Meanwhile, the arrivals from Singapore to Bali are also quite large or ranked eighth in international arrivals, reaching 14,606 people by air and 7 people through seaport in March 2019.
To anticipate and be aware of the importation of monkeypox disease, it is instructed to the Health Agencies throughout Indonesia, the Harbor Health Office, hospitals and health centers to disseminate information about monkeypox to the public and health care facilities in the region.
If getting a report on suspected monkeypox case, immediately make initial control efforts and report to the Director General of Disease Prevention and Control through PHEOC within 1 x 24 hours via email. Indonesian Ministry of Health also asked the CTF to conduct more intensive supervision against crews and travelers from Singapore, western and central African countries, conduct health checks on crews and travelers detected with fever or illness suspected of being associated with monkeypox.
They also improve monitoring and inspection of transportation means to ensure rodent free, as well as improve monitoring and inspection of transportation equipment health document. At hospitals and health centers, the Ministry of Health requests that health officers when provided health services should always use personal protective equipment (at least masks and gloves). (Citta Maya/balipost)